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They occur in all three of the principal cultural and historical divisions of Europe, in RomaniaFranciaand Russia.
The oldest attested Slavic language is Old Church Slavonic, also called Old Bulgarian, which was written down as the liturgical language of its new Church when Bulgaria converted to Christianity in The Slavic languages were so little differentiated at the 1917 russian civil war essay that Old Church Slavonic is nearly identical to the reconstructed Proto-Slavic, making it of great importance for historical linguistics.
When such a change goes unexplained, as it does this case, I am always suspicious that some kind of political correctness is involved. This could be of the form that "Slavic" has suddenly been taken by someone as disparaging or offensive, or that the 1917 russian civil war essay of a Slavic language has made a proprietary claim that one form is "correct" and the other isn't, just to indulge in the bureaucratic imperative to jerk people around, perhaps repeatedly, with meaningless alterations.
Until I see some sensible explanation for this change, it is not worth observing it. The Cyrillic alphabet, which was developed to write Old Church Slavonic, replaced the original "Glagolitic" script created by Sts. Cyril Constantine, and Methodius in the course of their mission to Bohemia.
It was adapted from existing alphabets, mainly Greek and Hebrew but also Armenianand subsequently would be used to write all the Slavic languages of Romania and Russia. The Slavic languages of Francia use the Latin alphabet. Cyril and Methodius were called to Rome at the time the Schism had not yet occurred between the Latin and Greek Churcheswhere they defended their innovation of putting the Bible and Church Liturgy into a language other than Hebrew, Greek, or Latin -- the languages on the "Titulus," the plaque on the Cross of the Crucifixion -- which the Papal Curia believed were the only sacred languages suitable for Christianity.
As it happened, Bohemia adopted the rite of the Latin Church, with the use of Latin, while it was Bulgaria that adopted the Orthodox Slavonic Rite and the Cyrillic alphabet.
When the Latin alphabet was adopted for the languages of Catholic Eastern Europethere was the problem that the Slavic, Baltic, and Uralic languages of the area had phonetic systems that were not well represented by the alphabet. Where the Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabet had been created to write Slavic languages, the Latin alphabet had to be reworked to do the job.
The principal challenge in the Slavic languages is the difference between "hard" and "soft," i. In Russian, with the Cyrillic alphabet, two complete sets of vowels are used, one to go with the hard consonants, the other with the soft.
For instance, the famous backwards "R",read "ya," is simply the vowel "a" but also indicates that the preceding consonant is soft. Where a vowel doesn't come after a consonant, as at the end of a word, two unpronounced letters are used, to indicate a hard consonant, a soft one -- the former is now rarely used, a hard consonant being assumed without the use of the soft signs.
Curiously, the Cyrillic alphabet for languages in close proximity with Francia, such as Serbian and Macedonianhave dropped this elegant device and, as in the Latin alphabet, have adoped dedicated letters to represent palatalizations. The convenience of this for Serbian is that the Latin alphabet for Croatian, essentially the same language as Serbian, matches up letter for letter with some digraphs with the Cyrillic for Serbian.
In the chart at left, Latin Croatian equivalents are given for every Cyrillic Serbian letter -- with blanks left where a Cyrillic letter is not used by Serbian.
Croatian alphabetical order, of course, is not as shown but follows what we expect for the Latin alphabet. Also, Serbian and Macedonian sometimes have more than one palatalized letter for a "hard" one -- thus, both "tsh" and "ty" for "t," "dzh" and "dy" or "d.
Otherwise, what we see in the table of Cyrillic alphabets is some variation in the treatment of the vowels. Ukrainian does not have the "yo" vowel, reassigns the "i" values, and has a "yi" letter.
Also, in Ukrainian the traditional "g" has become an "h," resulting in an additional letter to represent "g. The Bulgarian alphabet looks a bit more like the Russian but is also missing some of the vowel variations.
The full alphabet for Old Church Slavonic can be examined under the treatment for Bulgariaand it is noteworthy that modern alphabets often employ different selections of letters from the full original alphabet, which is where some of the apparently novel letters in Serbian and Macedonian come from.
Russian used to have some letters, which we see at right, mostly borrowed from Greek and used for borrowed Greek words, that were eliminated in the Soviet period. Similar pruning has occurred in some other versions of the alphabet. Instead we get a combination of dedicated vowels, diacritics, and digraphs to indicate the varieties of consonants.
The most distinctive diacritic is thea wedge or upsidedown circumflex placed, in different languages, on top of a c, s, z, t, d, n, or r -- these are typically "soft" consonants.
The term is from Czech, which uses the hachek the most though the spelling in English of "Czech" uses a Polish digraph! It isn't used in Hungarian, which is not even an Indo-European language, but Uralic.
The Russian Revolution History Essay. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, The Russian revolution was not as many people suppose, one well organized even in which Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown. the Russian civil war broke out between the communists and the nationalists,conservatives,imperials after a bloody four. The Russian Civil War - The Russian Civil War Between and there was a civil war in Russia. The war was between the reds, who were the communists/Bolsheviks, and the whites who were the either Tsarists or anti-communists. Why The Bolsheviks Won The Russian Civil War History Essay. Print Reference this War communism was the economic and political system that existed in the Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War, from to And this is why the Communists had the chance and did win the Civil War. On December 20, , after seizing power in.
Surprisingly, it isn't used in Polish, which is the Slavic language with the largest number of speakers in Francia 44 million as of The chart at left is a sample of consonants with special values, diacritics, and digraphs in various Eastern European languages.
Vowels in these languages are also dense with diacritics, but these are at least comparable, and often identical, with those used in French, German, and other Western and Northern European languages.
A frustration of doing this webpage is that basic HTML codes, although accommodating Western European languages, even Old English, have no provision for Eastern diacritics. Also, there are many historical sources that don't bother giving full diacritics, especially for Polish.
Religiously, the languages of Romania and Russia are associated with Orthodox Churches in doctrinal communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. The exception to this would be the Church of the Ukraine, which became affiliated with Catholicism during the long period of Lithuanian and Polish rule.
Otherwise, the religion of Francia would be Catholicism until the Reformation. With the Southern Slavic languages, the cultural division cuts across the linguistic division. Southern languages are found in both Francia and Romania.Mar 10, · Russia signalled her withdrawal from World War One soon after the October Revolution of , and the country turned in on itself with a bloody civil war between the Bolsheviks and the.
Elsewhere, I defined the Hemoclysm as that string of interconnected barbarities which made the Twentieth Century so fascinating for historians and so miserable for real barnweddingvt.com, I have listed the sources for determing the body count for the biggest of these, .
The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November until October between several groups in Russia. The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army. The Red Army was an army of communists. Why The Bolsheviks Won The Russian Civil War History Essay. Print Reference this War communism was the economic and political system that existed in the Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War, from to And this is why the Communists had the chance and did win the Civil War.
On December 20, , after seizing power in. The Russian Civil War Essay - The Russian Civil War Between and there was a civil war in Russia.
The war was between the reds, who were the communists/Bolsheviks, and the whites who were the either Tsarists or anti-communists. The Russian Revolution was not, as many people suppose, one well organised event in which Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown and Lenin and the Bolsheviks took power.
It was a series of events that took place during , which entailed two separate revolutions in February and October (with a great.