Circumcision being performed in central Asia probably Turkestanc. The origin of male circumcision is not known with certainty. It has been variously proposed that it began as a religious sacrifice, as a rite of passage marking a boy's entrance into adulthood, as a form of sympathetic magic to ensure virility or fertility, as a means of reducing sexual pleasure, as an aid to hygiene where regular bathing was impractical, as a means of marking those of higher social status, as a means of humiliating enemies and slaves by symbolic castrationas a means of differentiating a circumcising group from their non-circumcising neighbors, as a means of discouraging masturbation or other socially proscribed sexual behaviors, as a means of removing "excess" pleasure, as a means of increasing a man's attractiveness to women, as a demonstration of one's ability to endure pain, as a male counterpart to menstruation or the breaking of the hymenor as a way to repel demonesses and as a display of disgust of the smegma produced by the foreskin. Removing the foreskin can prevent or treat a medical condition known as phimosis.
History of Circumcision This index page links to material relating to the origin and history of male circumcision. Material is indexed in chronological order of publication.
Introduction The practice of male genital mutilation is far older than recorded history. Certainly, it is far older than the Biblical account of Abraham Genesis It seems to have originated in eastern Africa long before this time.
One theory postulates that circumcision began as a way of "purifying" individuals and society by reducing sexuality and sexual pleasure.
Human sexuality was seen as dirty or impure in some societies; hence cutting off the pleasure-producing parts was the obvious way to "purify" someone. It is now known that the male foreskin, or prepuce, is the principal location of erogenous sensation in the human male see Anatomy. Removal of the prepuce substantially reduces erogenous sensation.
In this procedure the foreskin was stripped away from the glans, with which it is fused in the infant See Normal. In a painful procedure known today as a synechotomy, more foreskin was removed than before and the injury was correspondingly greater.
Although Judaism mandated circumcision, not all Jews wanted to be circumcised. Several methods of foreskin restoration were devised and practiced. This lessened the ugly appearance of the bare exposed circumcised penis. The Christians took a strong stand against circumcision in the first century.
Christians rejected circumcision at the Council at Jerusalem.
Paul, the apostle to the gentiles, taught parents that they should not circumcise their children. Paul warned Titus to beware of the "circumcision group. Moscucci reports that circumcision was imposed in an attempt to prevent masturbation. The American cultural practice of circumcision became nearly universal in South Korea after the Korean War of The incidence of neonatal circumcision in the United Kingdom declined sharply to a very low level after publication of this article after the procedure was delisted by the NHS.
America waited another 20 years before addressing the problem of non-therapeutic circumcision. Preston established that there is no therapeutic or prophylactic benefit to circumcision. He also cited "undesirable psychologic, sexual, and medico-legal difficulties.
The incidence of male neonatal circumcision in the U. The matter rested there untilwhen retrospective data collected from U. Army medical records by Thomas Wiswell, M. This created new controversy about the value of neonatal circumcision.
The development of new information in the medical literature since caused the AAP to revisit the matter of circumcision in A new Task Force under the chair of Edgar J.
New data also conclusively established the role of the human papillomavirus HPV in the pathogenesis of genital cancers. This removed any lingering belief that the prepuce somehow caused cancer. The Canadian Paediatric Society revisited the matter of neonatal circumcision in A new evidence-based policy statement was issued that strengthened its recommendation, stating that circumcision is medically unnecessary.
The ACP termed circumcision traumatic, a possible violation of human rights, and called for parents to be provided with full and complete information about circumcision before making a decision. Taylor and colleagues published a landmark article in that described original research into the anatomy and histology of the foreskin.
The research showed that the foreskin is highly innervated tissue with the characteristics of a sensory organ designed to provide erogenous sensation. This action removes any suggestion that circumcision is beneficial or that it is recommended by medical authorities.
It may also be an attempt to shift legal liability for the injury that is inherent in every child circumcision from the doctor to the parents.In Judaism, the ritual of circumcision (brit milah) is performed on the eighth day of a boy's barnweddingvt.com ritual usually takes place in the morning at the family's home.
(There is no parallel practice for girls, and "female circumcision" has nothing to do with Judaism.). The Jews adopted circumcision as a religious ritual 10,13,16,20 and preserved this prehistoric practice into modern times. 11,20 The circumcision of Abraham removed only the very tip that extended beyond the glans penis.
11,20,26,31 Moses and his sons were not circumcised. In Judaism, the ritual of circumcision (brit milah) is performed on the eighth day of a boy's barnweddingvt.com ritual usually takes place in the morning at the family's home.
(There is no parallel practice for girls, and "female circumcision" has nothing to do with Judaism.). Bibliography: Index Catalogue of Surgeon-Major's Library, Washington, 1st and 2d series, s.v. Circumcision (ritual), gives a tolerably complete list of works and papers.
Hyrcanus required both circumcision and ritual immersion for the admission of a proselyte, while R. Joshua held that a proselyte needed only ritual immersion (Yev. 46a; see Proselytes).
The custom of circumcision seems to have spread among the Romans in the Diaspora under the influence of the Jewish community in Rome. In Judaism, circumcision has traditionally been practised among males on the eighth day after birth. Male circumcision and/or subincision, often as part of an intricate coming of age ritual, was a common practice among Australian Aborigines and Pacific islanders at first contact with Western travellers.