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Whereas inemployed mothers were more likely to be from single-parent families, this difference has now vanished. For single mothers who have been married, the present employment rates are slightly higher than those of currently married mothers, but for never-married mothers, employment rates are notably lower than for either of the others.
These statistics document a major social change in the United States.
But changes of this magnitude do not occur in a vacuum; the change in maternal employment rates have been accompanied by many other changes in family life. Family size is smaller, modern technology has considerably diminished the amount of necessary housework and food preparation, women are more educated, marriages are less stable, life expectancy has increased and youthfulness has been extended, expectations for personal fulfillment have expanded, and traditional gender-role attitudes have been modified and are less widely held.
In considering the research on the effects of maternal employment, it is important to keep these interrelated social changes in mind. Some of the effects suggested by earlier studies are not found in more recent research because of changes in family patterns or in the larger society.
Effects are different in the middle class than in the lower class and different for boys than for girls. To understand how maternal employment affects the child, you have to understand how it affects the family because it is through the family that effects take place.
The sample is a socio-economically heterogeneous one of third and fourth grade children and their families residing in a large industrial city in the Midwest.
It includes one-parent families as well as two-parent, African-American and European American. We also dropped from analysis children who were not living with their mothers.
The final sample had families. Differences Between Children of Employed and Nonemployed Mothers Many of the studies that have compared the children of employed and nonemployed mothers on child outcome measures such as indices of cognitive and socioemotional development have failed to find significant differences.
The research that has shown reasonably consistent differences has examined the relationships within subgroups based on social class and gender. Patterns that have been revealed over the years include the following: Daughters of employed mothers have been found to have higher academic achievement, greater career success, more nontraditional career choices, and greater occupational commitment.
Studies of children in poverty, in both two-parent and single-mother families, found higher cognitive scores for children with employed mothers as well as higher scores on socioemotional indices.
A few earlier studies found that sons of employed mothers in the middle class showed lower school performance and lower I. About ten years ago, there were three separate studies that looked at that relationship; two of them found no difference, but the third also found lower scores for sons of employed mothers in the middle-class.
We found no indication of this in the Michigan study. In fact, we found the opposite. In our study, the children of employed mothers obtained higher scores on the three achievement tests, for language, reading, and math, across gender, socioeconomic status, and marital status, middle-class boys included.
It was our most robust findings for the child outcome differences. Previous research has also found some social adjustment differences between children with employed and nonemployed mothers, but with less consistency. Daughters of employed mothers have been found to be more independent, particularly in interaction with their peers in a school setting, and to score higher on socioemotional adjustment measures.
Results for sons have been quite mixed and vary with social class and with how old the children were when they were tested. This was interpreted as reflecting the more traditional gender-role attitudes in the blue collar class.
We did not find this at all and it may reflect the change over the years in gender-role attitudes in the working-class -- the less stereotype views becoming more pervasive across class. The other social adjustment findings from the recent Michigan study were generally consistent with previous results but extended them.
Daughters with employed mothers, across the different groups, showed more positive assertiveness as rated by the teacher that is, they participated in class discussions, they asked questions when instructions were unclear, they were comfortable in leadership positionsand they showed less acting-out behavior.
They were less shy, more independent and had a higher sense of efficacy. Working-class boys also showed more positive social adjustment when their mothers were employed, and this was true for both one-parent and two-parent families.The Impact of Working Women on Work/Life Balance Perspectives Abstract This thesis describes the impact of women entering the workforce after on work/life balance issues.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. As co-chairs of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's Select Task Force on the Study of Harassment in the Workplace ("Select Task Force"), we have spent the last 18 months examining the myriad and complex issues associated with harassment in the workplace. Many working women will experience sexual harassment at some point in their careers.
While some report this harassment, many leave their jobs to escape the harassing environment. This mixed-methods study examines whether sexual harassment and subsequent career disruption affect women’s careers.
Using in-depth interviews and longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, we. With a Little Help from My Friends: The Effects of Naloxone Access and Good Samaritan Laws on Opioid-Related Deaths Daniel I.
Rees, Joseph J. Sabia, Laura M. Argys, Joshua Latshaw, Dhaval Dave. NBER Working Paper No. The Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II are among the largest investigations into the risk factors for major chronic diseases in women. NBER Working Paper No. Issued in June NBER Program(s):Children, Labor Studies, Political Economy.
After decades of convergence, the gender gap in employment outcomes has recently plateaued in many rich countries, despite the fact that women have increased their investment in human capital over this period.