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Decisions made in an epistemic democracy must also take into account relevant knowledge about the world. Neither aggregation of independent guesses nor deliberation, the standard approaches to epistemic democracy, offers a satisfactory theory of decision-making that is at once time-sensitive and capable of setting agendas endogenously.
Relevant Expertise Aggregation REA offers an epistemic approach to decision-making in democratic organizations with minimally competent voters who share certain interests and knowledge.
REA allows better choices among options to be made by basing choices on expertise in multiple relevant domains, through a time-sensitive process conjoining deliberation with voting.
REA differs from a standard Condorcet jury in aggregating votes by relevant domains, based on reputations and arguments of domain-experts.
This paper replaces version posted in Decemberversion posted in Julyand version posted in September This paper argues that Thucydides grasped the principles underlying contemporary prospect theory, which explains why people over-weight potential losses.
Thucydides offers salient examples of excessive risk-aversion and excessive risk-seeking by decision-makers variously faced with high or low probabilities of losses or gains.
The dominant epistemic approaches to democratic decision-making focus on aggregation of independent guesses and on deliberation, but neither offers a satisfactory means of decision-making that is at once time-sensitive and capable of setting agendas endogenously. Weighted Expertise Aggregation WEA conjoins diverse forms of expertise in multiple domains through a time-sensitive process of deliberation and voting.
WEA differs from a Condorcet jury in aggregating the marginal probability of correct judgments on domain- experts, rather than on the substance of complex issues.
Although it requires procedurally competent voters who share common knowledge, WEA offers a realistic approach to decision-making in democratic organizations. This paper replaced version originally posted in July It was revised in September ; please see entry. Plutarch, Arrian, Diodorus, Justin, and other ancient historians report that rumors of poisoning arose after the death of Alexander in Babylon in B.
We propose that the river harbored a killer bacterium that can occur on limestone rock deposits. This paper replaces originally published in September and originally published in July Acosta Hughes and S.
A rehearsal of the influence and appropriation of Callimachus in Roman letters, intended as introductory reading for students and non-specialists. Includes short case-studies and exemplification, with an emphasis on the agendas, poetics, and rhetoric of Roman poets.
Income, longevity, and education are regarded as key indicators. Auxiliary variables include nutrition, income and gender inequality, political and human rights, crime rates, human rights, and environmental degradation.Athena is the Olympian goddess of wisdom and war and the adored patroness of the city of Athens.
A virgin deity, she was also – somewhat paradoxically – associated with peace and handicrafts, especially spinning and weaving. Athena was probably a pre-Hellenic goddess and was later taken over by the Greeks.
Yet the Greek economy, unlike that of the Minoans, was largely military, so that Athena, while retaining her earlier domestic functions, became a goddess of war. The term Hellenistic, then, is used to describe the history and art of the Greek world from the death of Alexander in BCE on into the 1st century BCE.
The great social and political changes during the Hellenistic period are paralleled by great changes in the way myths were understood and depicted.
A: The culture of ancient Greece produced many accomplishments, such as art that remains among the world's finest, the first valid approaches to science, the first works of literature that remain in the canon of classics and significant contributions to mathematics.
Later societies relied on Greek discoveries in mathematics and science all the. The greatest or most famous of the Athenian temples is the Parthenon, which was dedicated to Athena, the patron goddess of Athens.
p (Q7) Aesop is accredited with introducing to literature the fable, which is a brief story used to teach a moral and whose characters are usually animals.
p (Q7). Abstract - My concern in this paper is the historical interpretation of the Greek and demotic documentary papyri of the Ptolemaic period, the role of Archaeology in the context of Ptolemaic economic history, and the application of social science theory towards an understanding of Ptolemaic Egypt.