Can we ethically qualify a "right to health care"? This topic page raises some issues to consider when facing these difficult allocation decisions. What rules guide rationing decisions? Often scarcity can be alleviated by improved efficiency or expanded investment.
Scarcity is the fundamental challenge confronting all individuals and nations. We all face limitations How we deal with these limitations—that is, how we prioritize and allocate our limited income, time, and resources—is the basic economic challenge that has confronted individuals and nations throughout history.
But not every nation has addressed this challenge in the same way.
Without scarcity, the science of economics would not exist. Economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. If society did not have to make choices about what to produce, distribute, and consume, the study of those actions would be relatively boring. be that the optimal allocation of resources across the economy will require spending more (or less) on health services than presently occurs. That question is not the subject of this paper. Economics as a social science does not examine what people ought to want, as distinguished from what they do want. The first question lies largely in the realm of ethics, aesthetics, or religion. Nevertheless, much writing by professional economists makes assumptions, explicit or implicit, about the proper goals of economic activity.
Societies have developed different broad economic approaches to manage their resources. The work that people do, the goods and services they provide, how they use and exchange resources… all tend to follow long-established patterns. But economic behaviors and relationships are predictable.
You know what you are supposed to do, who you trade with, and what to expect from others. In many traditional economies, community interests take precedence over the individual. Individuals may be expected to combine their efforts and share equally in the proceeds of their labor. In other traditional economies, some sort of private property is respected, but it is restrained by a strong set of obligations that individuals owe to their community.
Today you can find traditional economic systems at work among Australian aborigines and some isolated tribes in the Amazon. In the past, they could be found everywhere—in the feudal agrarian villages of medieval Europe, for example. In a command economic system or planned economy, the government controls the economy.
The state decides how to use and distribute resources. The government regulates prices and wages; it may even determine what sorts of work individuals do.
Socialism is a type of command economic system. Historically, the government has assumed varying degrees of control over the economy in socialist countries. In some, only major industries have been subjected to government management; in others, the government has exercised far more extensive control over the economy.
The classic failed example of a command economy was the communist Soviet Union. The collapse of the communist bloc in the late s led to the demise of many command economies around the world; Cuba continues to hold on to its planned economy even today.
In market economies, economic decisions are made by individuals.
The unfettered interaction of individuals and companies in the marketplace determines how resources are allocated and goods are distributed. Individuals choose how to invest their personal resources—what training to pursue, what jobs to take, what goods or services to produce.
And individuals decide what to consume. Within a pure market economy the government is entirely absent from economic affairs. A mixed economic system combines elements of the market and command economy.
Many economic decisions are made in the market by individuals. But the government also plays a role in the allocation and distribution of resources. The United States today, like most advanced nations, is a mixed economy.
The eternal question for mixed economies is just what the right mix between the public and private sectors of the economy should be.
Why It Matters Today Half of the twentieth century went down as a global battle between defenders of free markets democratic capitalist nations, led by the United States and believers in command economies the communist bloc, led by the Soviet Union.
The US and USSR never went to war against each other directly, but dozens of smaller yet still tragic and significant wars unfolded around the world as bitter fights over economic systems turned bloody. Korea, Vietnam, Nicaragua, Afghanistan, Angola… millions of people died in the various "hot" theaters of a Cold War fought to decide whether markets or states should control economic affairs.
The great irony was that the Cold War finally ended not on a battlefield, but because the Soviet economy finally self-destructed by the late s. For most of the world, the Soviet collapse proved that command economies were simply inferior to the market-dominated mixed economies of the capitalist world.
Of course, China — still ruled politically by an authoritarian Communist Party, even though its economy is now more mixed if not exactly free — is now the biggest creditor nation to the United States. Sometimes, a Song Says it Better:Screen Item Assessment Score Resource Use Uncertainty as to quality of resource required, and applicability of technology to use resource 4 Market Feed stock could be required at BHP plant in Illawarra, and silicon plant proposed for Central West region.
International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories, Vol. 2, No. 4, (October), e-ISSN – resource allocation with approximate formulations that can lead to maximum results of the studied project. mostly under the objective of minimizing the . 13 Decentralized Resource Allocation Mechanisms in Networks: Realization and Implementation Tudor Mihai Stoenescu1 and Demosthenis Teneketzis2 1 Social and Information Science Laboratory California Institute of Technology.
The FIFA World Cup was the 21st FIFA World Cup, an international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA once every four years. It took place in Russia from 14 June to 15 July It was the first World Cup to be held in Eastern Europe, and the 11th time that it had been held in Europe.
At an estimated cost of over $ billion, it. Feminist economics is the area of research and practice within which the gendered economic system is analyzed.1 Feminist economists argue that gender is central to understanding the allocation of economic opportunities, rewards, and punishments, and therefore gender is a key determinant of individual economic outcomes.
A central objective of government is the improve ment of the efficiency of resource allocation within the economy.. For the economy as a whole an efficient allocation of resOurces is said to exist if there is no other allocation ECONOMIC PLANNING FOR TRANSPORT.