Bibliography of early pregnancy among teenager

On one hand it has been characterized as an "epidemic," and President Clinton referred to teen pregnancy as "our most serious social problem" in his State of the Union Address. Conversely, some research evidence suggests that young maternal age may not be the cause of all adverse consequences commonly associated with teen pregnancy.

Bibliography of early pregnancy among teenager

The continuing apprehension about teenage pregnancy is based on the profound impact that teenage pregnancy can have on the lives of the girls and their children. Teenage pregnancy is defined as occurring between thirteen and nineteen years of age. There are, however, girls as young as ten who are sexually active and occasionally become pregnant and give birth.

The vast majority of teenage births in the United States occurs among girls between fifteen and nineteen years of age. When being inclusive of all girls who can become pregnant and give birth, the term used is adolescent pregnancy, which describes the emotional and biological developmental stage called adolescence.

The concern over the age at which a young woman should give birth has existed throughout human history. In general, however, there are two divergent views used to explain teenage pregnancy.

Some authors and researchers argue that labeling teen pregnancy as a public health problem has little to do with public health and more to do with it being socially, culturally, and economically unacceptable.

The bibliographic citations selected for this article will be extensive. The objective is to cover the major issues related to teenage pregnancy and childbearing, and adolescent pregnancy and childbearing. Childbirth to teenage mothers in the United States peaked in the mids at approximately births per 1, teenage girls.

Inthe rate of live births to teenage mothers in the United States dropped to a low of 34 births per 1, This was the lowest rate of teenage births in the United States since Inthe live births to teenage mothers continued to decline to This was a drop of Insomebabies were born to girls between fifteen and nineteen years of age.

Among girls fourteen and younger the rate of pregnancy is about 7 per 1, About half of these pregnancies 3 per 1, resulted in live births. In spite of this decline in teenage pregnancy over the years, approximately34 percent of teenage girls in the United States become pregnant each year.

These pregnancies and births suggest that the story of teenage pregnancy is not in the numbers of teen pregnancies and births but in the story of what causes the increase and decrease in the numbers. With the objective in mind to better understand teenage pregnancy, a general overview is provided as a broad background on teenage pregnancy.

Citations are grouped under related topics that explicate the complexity of critical forces affecting teenage pregnancy. Topics that provide a global view of the variations in perception of and response to teenage pregnancy will also be covered in this article.

General Overviews Adolescent pregnancy is a complex issue with many reasons for concern. Teenage pregnancy is a natural human occurrence that is a poor fit with modern society. In many ways it has become a proxy in what could be called the cultural wars. On one philosophical side of the debate, political and religious leaders use cultural and moral norms to shape public opinion and promote public policy with the stated purpose of preventing teen pregnancy.

To begin, Martin, et al. Leishman and Moir provides a good overview of these broader issues. Demographic studies by organizations like the Alan Guttmacher Institute Alan Guttmacher Institute give a statistical description of teenage pregnancy in the United States.

Teenage Pregnancy: Medical Risks and Realities

The number of teen pregnancies and the pregnancy outcomes are often used to support claims that teenage pregnancy is a serious social problem. The other side of this debate presented in publications by groups like the World Health Organization World Health Organization reflects the medical professionals, public health professionals, and academicians who make a case for viewing teenage sexuality and pregnancy in terms of human development, health, and psychological needs.

Bibliography of early pregnancy among teenager

The association between teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage, however, is not just found in the United States. This phenomenon is not isolated to the United States and Great Britain; it is global. To round out this general overview, the article Jiang, et al. The best sources for research are professional journals and monographs from national and international health and development organizations focused on specific countries, regions, and global teenage pregnancy variations and trends.

Teenage Pregnancies, Births and Abortions: Alan Guttmacher Institute, The statistics reveal discernible variations in teen birth and abortions between states.Pregnancy and birth rates among teenagers have varied considerably over time.

Figure 1 depicts rates of birth among women aged fifteen through nineteen years from to Teenage pregnancy and birth rates have declined annually from to Teenage pregnancy is considered a pregnancy for women under the age of Teenage pregnancy comes with several hardships for the mothers parents, the mother herself and the child.

One of the many reasons that teen pregnancy is not a good idea is the issues that arise, including the above-mentioned lack of prenatal care. The reason for the lack of prenatal care is usually delayed pregnancy testing, denial or even fear of telling others about the pregnancy.

Most states have a health department or university clinic where prenatal care is free or low cost and patient. Annotated Bibliography on Teen Pregnancy B.T HCS/ October 23, Annotated Bibliography on Teen Pregnancy Living as a teenager is difficult as it is, but sometimes it can take a turn for the worse.

between teen pregnancy and the achievement gap among minority youth. Adolescent pregnancy and its birth outcome among adolescents aged 13 to 16 in Soweto, Gauteng region.

Unpublished master's thesis, University of the Witwatersrand Google Scholar Mayekiso, T., Twaise, N. (). A study of the high rate of teenage Pregnancy in high schools in the ILembe District.

By. another child while still a teenager. Falling in love, developing crushes and forming romantic relationships are all parts of a Teenage pregnancy among blacks is proportionately higher than any other racial group.

Teenage Pregnancy - Childhood Studies - Oxford Bibliographies