Signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease vary by disease stage. Physical findings in patients with early disease are as follows: EM single or multiple lesions Headache Tender adenopathy regional or generalized Conjunctivitis uncommon, never prominent Carditis usually manifests as heart block Meningismus as a sign of aseptic meningitis Cranioneuropathy, especially cranial nerve VII and Bell palsy peripheral seventh nerve palsy with decreased unilateral function, including the forehead In patients with late disease, the typical physical finding is arthritis.
The disease presented arthritic-like symptoms, and was therefore referred to as Lyme arthritis.
The deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, was associated with the transmission of the disease inbut the cause of the disease remained unknown until Willy Burgdorferi discovered Borrelia burgdorferi in The disease is caused by three species of bacteria all belonging to Borrelia-Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii.
Borrelia burgdorferi is the main cause of Lyme disease in North America, where the other two species affect Europe[1, 2]. Borrelia burgdorferi Description and Structure Figure 1. This bacterium is helical and has both an inner and outer membrane as well as a flexible cell wall.
The cell is usually 1um wide, but can be up to um long. Bacteria of the class spirochaetes have flagella located on the inside of the periplasm in between the inner and outer membranes.
The flagellum along with the helical structure of the bacterium allows the bacterium to migrate through viscous fluids and burrow through various tissues. As a result, this cell is highly invasive. The metabolism of this cell is limited, therefore; B. Its genome encodes transport proteins such as ABC transporters.
The host serum as well as the environment are targets for these transport systems. The genome of this bacterium is distinctive. It consists of one linear chromosome ofbase pairs long with at least 17 linear and circular plasmids that combine to a size of more thanbase pairs . As a result of its large number of plasmids, the genetic organization of B.
What is Lyme Disease? The deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, carries Borrelia burgdorferi and an infected tick transmits the bacteria into a mammalian host through a tick bite. This disease is the most common vector borne disease in the United States, affecting far more individuals than West Nile virus.
It has been estimates that there were nearly 40, cases of Lyme reported ina large underestimate. The Center for Disease Control estimates the true number of cases to be as much as 12 times higher, making the estimated total as high asMoreover, national surveillance began inwhich increased the number of cases reported nearly fold .
Lyme disease is most commonly transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick as it bites [ Figure 2]. If caught and treated early, Lyme disease is almost always cured. However, this disease has a high rate of progression and if it is not treated early, symptoms may last for months or even years.
Unfortunately, thousands of patients go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed with doctors telling them their symptoms are in their head due to the difficulty in testing. Part of how this disease goes untreated and misdiagnosed is due to the characteristics of the burrowing bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi.
This bacterium has become an expert at hiding and surviving in human tissues, and its ability to take on different forms such as cysts, which allows the bacterium to escape the immune system, avoid antibiotics, and hide from detection by blood tests.
The mechanism of transmission is poorly understood, but for many bacterial pathogens such as B.Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.
Typical symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If left untreated, infection can . In the United States, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (hereafter termed B burgdorferi) is the only pathogen that causes Lyme disease.
However, in Europe and Asia, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and other related species, in addition to B burgdorferi, cause Lyme disease.
Lyme disease is caused by a spirochete—a corkscrew-shaped bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi. Lyme is called “The Great Imitator,” because its symptoms mimic many other diseases. Lyme is called “The Great Imitator,” because its symptoms mimic many other diseases.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is one of the most devastating diseases of our modern era, but new research is showing that the disease may have a trigger that was not realized before, Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium responsible for Lyme disease.
Lyme disease treatment consisting solely of antibiotic therapy can ultimately destroy the intestinal lining (where 70 percent of our immune system is located).
Intestinal dysbiosis is the term used to describe an imbalance of intestinal organisms. Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi that is carried in deer tick Ixodes scapularis.
This disease is the most common vector borne disease in the United States, affecting far more individuals than West Nile virus.