Renew borrowed items online before the due date. Introduction Using a review matrix enables you to quickly compare and contrast articles in order to determine the scope of research across time. A review matrix can help you more easily spot differences and similarities between journal articles about a given research topic. Review matrices are especially helpful for health sciences literature reviews covering the complete scope of a research topic over time.
Known severe hepatic or renal insufficiency e. Study Medication The herbal preparation was obtained from Sun Ten international pharmaceutical company, a qualified manufacturer of concentrated herbal extracts with good manufacturing practice.
The herbs were authenticated at the Brion Research Institute in Taiwan on the basis of standards specified in the Taiwan Pharmacopoeia of Chinese Medicine edition.
Contamination screening for heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatonix was performed to ensure safety for human consumption. For quality control and standardization of CCH1, herbal preparation was performed in a single batch to ensure consistency of quality.
After decoction and extraction, herbal preparation was concentrated into the powdered form and packed in sealed opaque aluminum foil bags. With the reference of a double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial of an herbal formula [ 22 ], the placebo of CCH1 was made of similarly colored starch, which was packed in an identical package and manufactured by the same company as CCH1.
For similar viscosity and taste with lactulose, the placebo of lactulose in our study was manufactured by the same company as lactulose syrup, which was composed of mg glucose, 2 mg xanthum gum a polysaccharide used as a food additive to increase the viscosity of a liquid0.
For the ingredients of placebo in this study, no known laxative effects or drug interaction with study medication existed.
Study Design This double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled study had two parallel groups with a Literature review a comparison of chinese treatment phase of 8 weeks.
After 8 weeks of treatment, patients were followed up for one additional month without study medication CCH1 or lactulose and placebo except for rescue laxative of magnesium oxide MgO. To obtain baseline information, all patients had a run-in period of 2 weeks without laxatives but only concurrent use of CCH1 placebo and lactulose placebo for ethical concerns and test for compliance before randomization.
With the reference of the national guidelines of the Registered Nurses Association [ 24 ], daily stool diaries were kept by the certified nurse assistants from the beginning of the run-in period to the completion of the study, including stool frequency, stool consistency, stool amount, and the use of rectal treatment RT; enema, suppository use, or digital maneuver.
Stool consistency was recorded by Bristol Stool Form Scale, ranging from 1 separate hard lumps, like nuts to 7 watery, no solid pieces [ 25 ].
Stool amount was classified into three categories small, moderate, and large according to the national guidelines [ 24 ]. In addition, a bowel routine protocol was set: Meanwhile, when necessary, the caregiver could apply a digital maneuver to manually remove the hard stool or stimulate the rectum.
Therefore, the bowel performance kept in the stool diary could imply the severity of constipation clinically.
Considering of the real situation in long-term care, physicians usually prescribe laxatives with different dosage according to the severity of constipation based on the stool diary. The participants were classified into three groups for initial dosage of study medication by enema frequency and weekly spontaneous bowel movement SBM during the run-in period.
Having enema more than once a week was regarded as group A.
Residents who received enema once a week or had less than three SBMs per week belonged to the group B. The frequency of SBM three to seven times a week was referred to as group C.
Participants averaging more than one SBM per day during the run-in period were excluded. Residents were randomized to the study medication according to a computer-generated randomization schedule.
Randomization was stratified based on the severity of constipation and Barthel's index [ 26 ], a scale used to measure functional performance in basic activities of daily living. Allocation concealment was performed by enclosing assignments in sequentially numbered, identical, and sealed two envelopes according to the allocation sequence in every stratified group.
The packaging of study medication and placebo were indistinguishable, and they were dispensed after randomization by an independent research assistant in a separate office. All persons involved in the conduct and management of the study were blinded to individual patient treatment during the study.
Interventions The experimental group received an initial dose of 4. Daily dosage over 3. During the whole study period of 12 weeks, MgO was the only rescue oral laxative allowed to be used.
Assessment Participants were visited every week by one primary physician with licenses for both conventional medicine and TCM during the entire study period of 12 weeks. SBM was defined as stool passage without digital maneuver and without the use of suppository or enema on the same day.These differences are the fundamental differences between Chinese and western food culture difference.
China has 5, years of history, China has brightly rich, the broad and profound diet culture; Chinese people pay attention to the "nature and humanity", Chinese food to feed the ideographic, by thing of expressing characteristics.
In this chapter, the literature on the topic, “Comparison of Chinese consumers’ views of Western and Chinese domestic grocery brands”, is going to be reviewed.
This literature review is going to be helpful in determining the Chinese consumer experience with the local as well as foreign brands. Literature Reviews What this handout is about This handout will explain what a literature review is and offer insights into the form and construction of a literature review in the humanities, social sciences, and sciences.
Introduction OK. You’ve got to write a literature review. Full-Text Paper (PDF): The Lewis turning point of Chinese economy: Comparison with Japanese experience. You may find it helpful to review the section of our Literature Review Tutorial that discusses synthesizing ideas.
This section provides tools to help you organize your ideas and identify themes and gaps in the literature you review on your topic. New Perspectives on Contemporary Poetry, edited by Christopher Lupke, is a welcome contribution to the field of Chinese literature and culture.
It has a sensible structure for commenting on what is at once a coherent body of texts—because they partake of roughly the same language in a particular.