Soil and topography studies essay

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Soil and topography studies essay

Soil and topography studies essay

Spirit landing site, as imaged by MRO December 4, ; click image to enlarge An overall view of MER-A Spirit landing site denoted with a star The primary surface mission for Spirit was planned to last at least 90 sols.

The mission received several extensions and lasted about 2, sols. On August 11,Spirit obtained the second longest operational duration on the surface of Mars for a lander or rover at Sols, one sol longer than the Viking 2 lander.

Viking 2 was powered by a nuclear cell whereas Spirit is powered by solar arrays.

The Temple and the Springs

Until Opportunity overtook it on May 19,the Mars probe with longest operational period was Viking 1 that lasted for Sols on the surface of Mars. On March 22,Spirit sent its last communication, thus falling just over a month short of surpassing Viking 1's operational record. An archive of weekly updates on the rover's status can be found at the Spirit Update Archive.

In particular, samples sought will include those that have minerals deposited by water-related processes such as precipitationevaporationsedimentary cementation or hydrothermal activity.

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Determine the distribution and composition of minerals, rocks, and soils surrounding the landing sites.

Determine what geologic processes have shaped the local terrain and influenced the chemistry. Such processes could include water or wind erosion, sedimentation, hydrothermal mechanisms, volcanism, and cratering. Perform calibration and validation of surface observations made by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter instruments.

This will help determine the accuracy and effectiveness of various instruments that survey Martian geology from orbit.

Search for iron-containing minerals, identify and quantify relative amounts of specific mineral types that contain water or were formed in water, such as iron-bearing carbonates.

Characterize the mineralogy and textures of rocks and soils and determine the processes that created them. Search for geological clues to the environmental conditions that existed when liquid water was present.

Assess whether those environments were conducive to life. NASA sought evidence of life on Mars, beginning with the question of whether the Martian environment was ever suitable for life. Life forms known to science require water, so the history of water on Mars is a critical piece of knowledge.

Although the Mars Exploration Rovers did not have the ability to detect life directly, they offered very important information on the habitability of the environment during the planet's history. Comparison of embedded computer systems on board the Mars rovers Spirit and its twin, Opportunity are six-wheeled, solar-powered robots standing 1.

Six wheels on a rocker-bogie system enable mobility over rough terrain. Each wheel has its own motor. The vehicle is steered at front and rear and is designed to operate safely at tilts of up to 30 degrees.

Maximum speed is 5 centimeters per second 2. Both Spirit and Opportunity have pieces of the fallen World Trade Center 's metal on them that were "turned into shields to protect cables on the drilling mechanisms".

A gold film and a layer of silica aerogel provide insulation. Communications depends on an omnidirectional low-gain antenna communicating at a low data rate and a steerable high-gain antenna, both in direct contact with Earth. A low gain antenna is also used to relay data to spacecraft orbiting Mars.

The science instruments include: Panoramic Camera Pancam — examines the texture, color, mineralogy, and structure of the local terrain. Navigation Camera Navcam — monochrome with a higher field of view but lower resolution, for navigation and driving.

Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer Mini-TES — identifies promising rocks and soils for closer examination, and determines the processes that formed them. The rover arm holds the following instruments: Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer APXS — close-up analysis of the abundances of elements that make up rocks and soils.

Magnets — for collecting magnetic dust particles. Microscopic Imager MI — obtains close-up, high-resolution images of rocks and soils.

Spirit (rover) - Wikipedia

This was the start of its sol mission, but solar cell cleaning events would mean it was the start of a much longer mission, lasting until Native American: Native American, member of any of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere, although the term often connotes only those groups whose original territories were in present-day Canada and the United States.

Learn more about the . (used relatively in restrictive clauses having that as the antecedent): Damaged goods constituted part of that which was sold at the auction. (used after a preposition to represent a specified antecedent): the horse on which I rode. (used relatively to represent a specified or implied antecedent) the one that; a particular one that: You may choose which you like.

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Soil and topography studies essay

LDS Church members are taught that the Book of Mormon (BOM) is scripture, as well as a true record of the inhabitants of the Americas from about BC to AD.

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