He said that the world crisis was from humanity losing the ethical idea of civilization, "the sum total of all progress made by man in every sphere of action and from every point of view in so far as the progress helps towards the spiritual perfecting of individuals as the progress of all progress". The abstract noun "civilization", meaning "civilized condition", came in the s, again from French. The first known use in French is inby Victor Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeauand the first use in English is attributed to Adam Fergusonwho in his Essay on the History of Civil Society wrote, "Not only the individual advances from infancy to manhood, but the species itself from rudeness to civilisation".
The Scottish Independence Referendum A blind alley for the working class Since the onset of the financial crisis the question dominating bourgeois economics has been how to reduce the astronomical levels of public, banking and private debts and overcome the economic recession.
And the question dominating politics is how to sell the necessary sacrifices to the working class, such as wage freezes or at least pay increases below the rate of inflation unemployment, cuts in welfare benefits, reduced services and poverty.
But we should not forget that, while the bourgeoisie finds a common enemy in the international working class, it is not a monolithic class; the economic downturn raises tensions within the bourgeoisie itself, as various capitalist interests find themselves fighting to protect their share of the profits from our labour.
One of the common responses is to tighten control of national resources including wage labour even if this means reducing foreign trade. Nationalism is the worst kind of poison for the working class.
However, since it would be suicide to admit the true reasons for the economic crisis, which is international by nature, the mainstream bourgeois parties quickly follow suit, though they are careful to adjust their nationalist rhetoric to suit their particular constituencies.
If you strip away the rhetoric, the storyline is the same everywhere. The last defence all these bourgeois parties in the face of a crisis is nationalism, patriotic flag-waving and bigotry. This is no different in Scotland, where the Scottish Nationalist Party SNP claims that a new capitalist mini-state offers the basis for a return to the prosperity and social reformism of the post-war boom.
Salmond showed all the characteristics of an astute political operator. On the other hand he had a background in economics and gained detailed knowledge of the banking and oil industries while working at the Scottish Office. Being more flexible than principled he always seemed to be attuned to the main chance.
Under this new leadership the SNP increased its number of MPs from four to six in the general election, which saw a landslide victory for the Labour Party under Tony Blair.
After this election, Labour legislated for a devolved Scottish parliament in Edinburgh, a development that has already occurred along similar lines in most other countries. While still formally committed to a fully independent Scotland, Salmond played an active part in securing the victory for devolution in the Scotland referendum of A new Scottish Parliament was then convened at Holyrood in Edinburgh.
Some observers saw this electoral structure as a way of preventing a SNP majority — in reality it is a way of drawing in all the political bodies into the Scottish Parliament, for the more effective management of capitalism.
Membership of the UK, it was argued, was preventing Scotland from enriching itself. So long as the boom continued, it was an argument that had some force.
But of course, capitalist booms always end in bust. The other main political parties Labour, Liberal Democrats and the Tories ensured its rejection. But when the financial crisis of led to the collapse of the Royal Bank of Scotland and the fall in oil prices and the bankruptcy of Iceland, previously cited by the SNP as another role model the rhetoric had to change.
It reverted to a more left-wing line. Salmond now presented independence as the only way of protecting the National Health Service and creating jobs for young people. In fact, Salmond was able to turn the economic downturn massively to his advantage.
The spending cuts that ensued reduced the income of the working class while shoring up the banking system. But for various reasons, Scotland was protected from the worst severity of the cuts.
For one thing, Scottish banks were the main beneficiaries of the bailout, largely financed by English taxpayers.
Spending per capita is significantly higher in Scotland than in England.The Clash of Civilizations is a hypothesis that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world.
The American political scientist Samuel P. Huntington argued that future wars would be fought not between countries, but between cultures, and that Islamic extremism would become the biggest . A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment..
Civilizations are intimately associated with and often further defined by. New hate crime tracker in India finds victims are predominantly Muslims, perpetrators Hindus (Nov 13, , barnweddingvt.com) the world has become a progressively more frightening and dangerous place to live in for minorities of various kinds - religious, national, racial, linguistic, ethnic, and sexual - as well as for left and liberal dissidents.
By: Dariush Afshar Wildlife is naturally separated from Mankind’s territory and if you defy that separation, you are going to fight for your survival in the wilderness.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, and European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Essay Three Part Two: Abstractionism -- Or, 'Science' On The cheap.
Preface. For some reason I can't work out, Internet Explorer 11 will no longer play the video I have posted to this page.