Evidence-Based Practice Evidence-Based Practice Evidence-based practice involves identifying, assessing, and implementing strategies that are supported by scientific research.
There is a certain amount of hyperbole on both sides of this issue, which is skewing the evidence. This makes it difficult to interpret, largely due to the lack of clarity on what the aims of this program are.
Is it to help struggling addicts, reduce the number of drug users, or save money by reducing welfare payments? Most of the evidence drawn on by critics of the trial What is the evidence of welfare from places that have implemented such programs. While it has been considered in the UK and Canada, variations on testing welfare recipients for drug use have only previously appeared in the US and New Zealand.
So, have they worked? And is there a convincing link between welfare recipients and drug use at all? Drug use and welfare The most recent estimates from the US found about one in five people receiving welfare had used illicit drugs in the previous year.
The impact this drug use has on their lives varies widely, however. The clandestine nature of drug use, and the reliance on self-reporting in these statistics, make prevalence estimates imperfect.
Nevertheless, drug use has been treated as a key driver of welfare dependency in the US, where testing has been implemented intermittently since the turn of the century. Drug testing in Florida As numbers of such programs grew in the US, one study directly analysed the difference in employment and earnings between welfare recipients who were and were not using drugs in Florida.
The study reviewed 6, applications as part of drug testing for the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. This involves the federal government providing financial assistance to pregnant women and families with one or more dependants.
The authors found a small but insignificant difference between groups, which is a difficult result on which to base conclusions.
And it had limited ability to control for related social and demographic factors. Helping drug users get back to work, not random drug testing, should be our priority The confounding effect of these other factors is often alluded to as implied evidence against drug-testing programs.
For instance, some studies have argued depression, physical health problems and limited education are the most common barriers to improving the conditions of drug-using welfare recipients. Yet this is not a clear argument against targeting drugs, as there is also evidence cannabis and methamphetamine use can exacerbate depression and other health conditions.
Too costly an exercise? Data have also been released for detection rates in a similar program in Arizona, Missouri, Utah and Tennessee over an month period in Greens Senator Rachel Siewert has spoken out against drug-testing welfare recipients, saying it will be too costly.
In the current system, however, less than half of all people seeking drug treatment are able to get access to it. And the most recent reviews of compulsory drug treatment have reiterated it does not improve treatment outcomes. What about drug-related harms?
No assessment has been made thus far of how drug-related harms — such as emergency department presentations, mental health conditions, or interpersonal violence — changed in response to testing programs. There is evidencefor example, that prohibition limits drug use. Some studies have found when addicts do enter rehabilitation, they can be motivated by the desire to avoid risk of punishment and frequent interactions with police.
This would imply additional hurdles that increase the potential cost of using drugs can effectively reduce levels of use. Interactions with police can motivate people to enter rehabilitation. But to base policy on this is to ignore the evidence that addicts can and do exercise control over their drug use in response to external factors.
With regards to the public health argument, the evidence exists but is unsettled and complex. This controversy is not resolved by marginalising the broader picture of relevant research.
In terms of the economic argument, there is no reason to expect the costs of this program will be outweighed by the welfare payments that may be cancelled. It can be said, as some of the architects of this program do say, that the very purpose of this trial is to collect the evidence everyone is clamouring for.
The government has committed to ongoing reviews of the program and its outcomes.Animal welfare refers to the state of the animal; the treatment that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane treatment.
1 Protecting an animal's welfare means providing for its physical and mental needs.
A number of comparative studies on welfare-state development have used the size of social expenditures to the GDP, “the welfare state effort” indictor, as their central dependent variable. However, while this indicator is relevant, as is widely recognized, it has some limits for explanation of the welfare .
Contrary to stereotypes, there is no evidence that people on welfare are lazy. Indeed, surveys of welfare recipients consistently show their desire for a job.
But evidence of massive fraud can’t be found. Some also believe that many welfare recipients cheat. “The myth of the Cadillac-driving welfare queen” who defrauds the system lingers even though there’s no proof of it, said Erin O’Brien, a poverty expert at the University of Massachusetts, Boston.
A number of comparative studies on welfare-state development have used the size of social expenditures to the GDP, “the welfare state effort” indictor, as their central dependent variable. However, while this indicator is relevant, as is widely recognized, it has some limits for explanation of the welfare state effort.
Evidence Use in Child Welfare. The child welfare system is critical to the development of vulnerable children. In , Realizing the Potential of Research in Child Welfare, may exacerbate. Research exists to guide screenings and investigations, but this evidence often fails to.